Ground Reference Maneuvers | Gold Seal Online Ground School

Ground Reference Maneuvers

Private pilots are expected to be proficient in three basic ground reference maneuvers. They are (1) turns around a point, (2) S-turns, and (3) rectangular patterns. Using the ACS (Airman Certification Standards), this lesson describes the fundamentals of each type of maneuver. Understanding the requirements and the common features that the maneuvers share makes them easier to perform. Make sure to download and print the supplemental files for this lesson.

ACS Reference: PA.V.B
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